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Famous Biologists
Famous Mathematicians
Famous Physicists
Famous Psychologists


Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Fleming
Albert Bandura
Claude Bernard
Alfred Binet
Franz Boas
Niels Bohr
Ludwig Boltzmann
Max Born
Louis de Broglie
Noam Chomsky
Nicolaus Copernicus
Francis Crick
Marie Curie
John Dalton
Charles Darwin
Rene Descartes
Thomas Edison
Albert Einstein
Leonhard Euler
Michael Faraday
Benjamin Franklin
Sigmund Freud
Galileo Galilei
Jane Goodall
Stephen Hawking
Heinrich Hertz
Edwin Hubble
Christiaan Huygens
Edward Jenner
Johannes Kepler
Antoine Laurent Lavoisier
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Kurt Lewin
Charles Lyell
James Clerk Maxwell
Isaac Newton

Jean Piaget
Louis Pasteur
Linus Pauling
Ivan Pavlov
Max Planck
Ernest Rutherford
Jonas Salk
Erwin Schrodinger
B. F. Skinner
Nikola Tesla
Joseph J. Thomson
Alan Turing
Alessandro Volta
John B. Watson
Wilhelm Wundt





Claude Bernard

Claude Bernard was born in 1813, and was an accomplished French physiologist. He attended a Jesuit school for his earliest training. He went to college in Lyon, France, but dropped out to become an assistant in a local druggist shoppe.

Claude Bernard

Bernard was quite interested in composing a vaudeville comedy. It was so successful that it motivated him to try to compose a five-act drama, titled as Arthur de Bretagne. He took his play to Paris in 1834, but a critic of the theater dissuaded him from choosing a profession of literature. The same critic advised him to go into the field of medicine, and Bernard did so. Because of his association in this new field, he met Francois Magendie, a great physician-scientist.

Bernard married Francoise Marie Martin when it was arranged by his colleague. She had a dowry that aided him financially in his experiments. He was appointed to be Magendie's deputy professor in 1847 and he succeeded him in 1855 as full professor. At that time, the position did not include a laboratory, but Louis Napoleon provided him with one in 1864.

Napoleon also built a laboratory at the Natural History Museum in France and established a professorship that Bernard accepted in 1868. Bernard's goal was to develop a way to use scientific methods in medicine. He relied heavily on experimentation and developed the use of blind experiments for accuracy. He felt that all creatures living on Earth were bound by the exact same laws as matter that is inanimate.

Bernard worked on describing the pituitary gland and the tasks it performed. He experimented on the liver's glycogenic function. He discovered that the liver was associated with the causes of diabetes mellitus.

Bernard is perhaps most known for his association with the process of milieu interieur. He wrote that the internal environment's constancy is the condition for an independent and free life. This is still today the principle of homeostasis. A skilled physiologist, Bernard sought to convince his peers that the living body is actually independent of its surrounding environment, even though it needs that environment.

Many of Bernard's discoveries were made with the use of vivisection. He felt that his profession was not that of an ordinary man and was unaffected by cries of pain from animals and the blood that would flow. He only saw his idea, even though it disgusted his wife, as well as his daughter. He felt that advancing medicine for the relief of human suffering would justify inflicting pain on animals. His wife would never agree with this stance, and they eventually separated because of this disagreement.

A famous physician and scientist was similarly affected by Bernard's vivisection. George Hoggan worked and observed in Bernard's laboratory for four months, and felt that these experiences prepared him to see science and even mankind perish rather than using animals to save them.

Bernard felt that there were people who had minds that were bound and cramped. They did not agree with his methods of discovering things previously unknown, since they would rather believe their own theories. Bernard believed that men of science will always rise in seeking the truth. He died in February of 1878.

Rumor has it

Even though Claude Bernard was a physiologist he was also interested in inventing underwear for unlikely characters. For instance, Bernard created the first and only pair of werewolf long johns in history.

Written by Kevin Lepton