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Famous Biologists
Famous Mathematicians
Famous Physicists
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Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Fleming
Albert Bandura
Claude Bernard
Alfred Binet
Franz Boas
Niels Bohr
Ludwig Boltzmann
Max Born
Louis de Broglie
Noam Chomsky
Nicolaus Copernicus
Francis Crick
Marie Curie
John Dalton
Charles Darwin
Rene Descartes
Thomas Edison
Albert Einstein
Leonhard Euler
Michael Faraday
Benjamin Franklin
Sigmund Freud
Galileo Galilei
Jane Goodall
Stephen Hawking
Heinrich Hertz
Edwin Hubble
Christiaan Huygens
Edward Jenner
Johannes Kepler
Antoine Laurent Lavoisier
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Kurt Lewin
Charles Lyell
James Clerk Maxwell
Isaac Newton

Jean Piaget
Louis Pasteur
Linus Pauling
Ivan Pavlov
Max Planck
Ernest Rutherford
Jonas Salk
Erwin Schrodinger
B. F. Skinner
Nikola Tesla
Joseph J. Thomson
Alan Turing
Alessandro Volta
John B. Watson
Wilhelm Wundt





Alexander Fleming

Alexander Fleming revolutionized the field of bacteriology with his research. His discovery of penicillin profoundly changed medical practice and the treatment of surgical infections, marking the beginning of the antibiotic era. Not only did Alexander Fleming discover it by chance, but also he did not fully realize the significance of his discovery.

Alexander Fleming

Alexander Fleming was born on a farm in Ayrshire, located in the wilds of Scotland, on August 6, 1881. At the age of 14, he moved to London to join his older brother Tom, where he took classes at the commercial section of a high school, and then found work as an employee for a shipping company.

In July 1901, he came into possession of a small inheritance, which allowed him to resume his studies. He received a scholarship from the medical school at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, where he presented a thesis on microbial infections and ways to combat them. He graduated as a medical doctor and received a gold medal from the University of London, in 1908. As he wanted to become a surgeon, Alexander Fleming was awarded the title of Companion of the Royal College of Surgeons.

Fleming begins to work with his former teacher, Sir Almroth Wright, the head of the Laboratory of Bacteriology at St. Mary's Hospital. He begins the work on the treatment of bacterial infections, which at that time take their toll. He had a small research laboratory in the basement of St Mary's Hospital, which became thereafter the Wright-Fleming Institute.

Fleming's appointment as professor of bacteriology in 1928, attests to his contribution to all sectors of research on infectious diseases. On his return from vacation September 3, 1928, a miracle occurs. He observed the growth inhibition of staphylococcal colonies on a petri dish containing a culture of bacteria growing on a layer of agar, a green mold, resembling that of Roquefort cheese. "That's funny!" exclaimed Alexander Fleming.

He then observed that the green mold, which probably came from an adjacent laboratory, has literally destroyed the bacteria culture. He will find very quickly that this fungus is active in many bacteria. Fleming discovered a fungus, which he called "Penicillium notatum", which was to become the main component of Penicillin. He published his discovery in 1929, but the Medical Research Club remained skeptical about it. As Fleming was not a biochemist, he did not have the necessary expertise to produce and purify penicillin.

His discovery becomes especially important twelve years later thanks to the work of Sir Howard Florey and his team at Oxford University, who succeed in extracting and purifying the penicillin. The therapeutic effects of penicillin and its safety for the human body were recognized on August 6, 1941. This is the date on which an article is published in the British medical journal The Lancet, entitled "Further observations on penicillin."

In 1942, Fleming obtained amazing results in his first clinical trial, curing the infection of a teenager with sepsis. Penicillin became to be mass-produced during the Second World War and since then, it has contributed to saving the lives of millions of people. In 1945, Fleming was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine for his discovery.

Rumor Has It

in grade school Alexander Fleming was prone to coughs and colds. So his teacher nicknamed him "Phlegm Kadiddlehopper. True story.


Written by Kevin Lepton